This book describes the structures and functions of active protein filaments, found in bacteria and archaea, and now known to perform crucial roles in cell division and intra-cellular motility, as well as being essential for controlling cell shape and growth. These roles are possible because the cytoskeletal and cytomotive filaments provide long range order from small subunits. Studies of these filaments are therefore of central importance to understanding prokaryotic cell biology. The wide variation in subunit and polymer structure and its relationship with the range of functions also provide important insights into cell evolution, including the emergence of eukaryotic cells.
Individual chapters, written by leading researchers, review the great advances made in the past 20-25 years, and still ongoing, to discover the architectures, dynamics and roles of filaments found in relevant model organisms. Others describe one of the families of dynamic filaments found in many species. The most common types of filament are deeply related to eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins, notably actin and tubulin that polymerise and depolymerise under the control of nucleotide hydrolysis. Related systems are found to perform a variety of roles, depending on the organisms. Surprisingly, prokaryotes all lack the molecular motors associated with eukaryotic F-actin and microtubules. Archaea, but not bacteria, also have active filaments related to the eukaryotic ESCRT system. Non-dynamic fibres, including intermediate filament-like structures, are known to occur in some bacteria.. Details of known filament structures are discussed and related to what has been established about their molecular mechanisms, including current controversies. The final chapter covers the use of some of these dynamic filaments in Systems Biology research. The level of information in all chapters is suitable both for active researchers and for advanced students in courses involving bacterial or archaeal physiology, molecular microbiology, structural cell biology, molecular motility or evolution.Chapter 3 of this book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.
This is the first book dedicated to solar gas turbines, providing fundamental knowledge and state-of-the-art developments in the field. A gas turbine is a heat engine in which a mixture of fuel and air is burned in a chamber that is an integral part of the flow circuit of the working fluid. The burnt gas mixture expands and turns the turbine, which can be connected to a generator for electricity production. Solar gas turbines offer an important alternative to conventional gas turbines driven by non-renewable, polluting fossil fuels such as diesel or natural gas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the topic as well as numerous illustrations.
DNA computation has emerged in the last ten years as an exciting new - search ?eld at the intersection (and, some would say, frontiers) of computer science,biology,engineering,andmathematics.AlthoughanticipatedbyFe- man as long ago as the 1950s [59], the notion of performing computations at a molecular level was only realized in 1994, with Adleman's seminal work [3] on computing with DNA. Since then the ?eld has blossomed rapidly, with signi?cant theoretical and experimental results being reported regularly. Several books [120, 39] have described various aspects of DNA compu- tion, but this is, to the author's best knowledge, the ?rst to bring together descriptions of both theoreticaland experimentalresults.The targetaudience is intentionally broad, including students as well as experienced researchers. We expect that users of the book will have some background in either c- puter science, mathematics, engineering, or the life sciences. The intention is that this book be used as a tutorial guide for newcomers to the ?eld as well as a reference text for people already working in this fascinating area. To this end, we include two self-contained tutorial chapters (1 and 2), which convey only those aspects of computer science and biology that are required to understand the subsequent material.
This book presents a general introduction to the computational aspects of forensic science, covering the different tools needed for forensic investigations, the importance of forensics and biometrics, and the use of Benford's law for biometrics and network traffic analysis. It specifically focuses on the application of these techniques in Africa, and how they can be of benefit in the investigation of crime in Nigeria in particular.
This book is concerned with computing in materio: that is, unconventional computing performed by directly harnessing the physical properties of materials. It offers an overview of the field, covering four main areas of interest: theory, practice, applications and implications. Each chapter synthesizes current understanding by deliberately bringing together researchers across a collection of related research projects. The book is useful for graduate students, researchers in the field, and the general scientific reader who is interested in inherently interdisciplinary research at the intersections of computer science, biology, chemistry, physics, engineering and mathematics.
What is the role and meaning of probability in physical theory, in particular in two of the most successful theories of our age, quantum physics and statistical mechanics? Laws once conceived as universal and deterministic, such as Newton`s laws of motion, or the second law of thermodynamics, are replaced in these theories by inherently probabilistic laws. This collection of essays by some of the world`s foremost experts presents an in-depth analysis of the meaning of probability in contemporary physics. Among the questions addressed are: How are probabilities defined? Are they objective or subjective? What is their explanatory value? What are the differences between quantum and classical probabilities? The result is an informative and thought-provoking book for the scientifically inquisitive.
This book describes Martin Bucer (1491-1551) as a teacher of theology, focusing on his time as Regius Professor of Divinity at the University of Cambridge between 1549 and 1551. The book is centered on his 1550 Cambridge lectures on Ephesians, and investigates them in their historical context, exploring what sort of a theologian Bucer was. The lectures are examined to find out how they represent Bucer's method of teaching and "doing" theology, and shed light on the relationship between biblical exegesis and theological formulation as he understood it. Divided into two interconnected parts, the book first sets the historical context for the lectures, including a broad sketch of scholastic method in theology and the biblical humanist critique of that method. It then closely examines Bucer's practice in the Cambridge lectures, to show the extent to which he was a theologian of the biblical humanist school, influenced by the method Erasmus set forth in the Ratio Verae Theologiae in which true theology begins, ends, and is best "done" as an exercise in the exegesis of the Word of God.
Susan L. Groenke and J. Amos Hatch It does not feel safe to be critical in university-based teacher education programs right now, especially if you are junior faculty. In the neoliberal era, critical teacher education research gets less and less funding, and professors can be denied tenure or lose their jobs for speaking out against the status quo. Also, we know that the pedagogies critical teacher educators espouse can get beginning K-12 teachers fired or shuffled around, especially if their students' test scores are low. This, paired with the resistance many of the future teachers who come through our programs-predominantly White, middle-class, and happy with the current state of affairs-show toward critical pedagogy, makes it seem a whole lot easier, less risky, even smart not to "do" critical pedagogy at all. Why bother? We believe this book shows we have lots of reasons to "bother" with critical pe- gogy in teacher education, as current educational policies and the neoliberal discourses that vie for the identities of our own local contexts increasingly do not have education for the public good in mind. This book shows teacher educators taking risks, seeking out what political theorist James Scott has called the "small openings" for resistance in the contexts that mark teacher education in the early twenty-first century.
With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today's product design and manufacturing, more optimal, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support product design and manufacturing activities. Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimisation for Product Design and Manufacturing presents a focused collection of quality chapters on state-of-the-art research efforts in multi-objective evolutionary optimisation, as well as their practical applications to integrated product design and manufacturing. Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimisation for Product Design and Manufacturing consists of two major sections. The first presents a broad-based review of the key areas of research in multi-objective evolutionary optimisation. The second gives in-depth treatments of selected methodologies and systems in intelligent design and integrated manufacturing.Recent developments and innovations in multi-objective evolutionary optimisation make Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimisation for Product Design and Manufacturing a useful text for a broad readership, from academic researchers to practicing engineers.
Adaptive Control of Linear Hyperbolic PDEs provides a comprehensive treatment of adaptive control of linear hyperbolic systems, using the backstepping method. It develops adaptive control strategies for different combinations of measurements and actuators, as well as for a range of different combinations of parameter uncertainty. The book treats boundary control of systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) with uncertain parameters.
The authors develop designs for single equations, as well as any number of coupled equations. The designs are accompanied by mathematical proofs, which allow the reader to gain insight into the technical challenges associated with adaptive control of hyperbolic PDEs, and to get an overview of problems that are still open for further research. Although stabilization of unstable systems by boundary control and boundary sensing are the particular focus, state-feedback designs are also presented. The book also includes simulation examples with implementational details and graphical displays, to give readers an insight into the performance of the proposed control algorithms, as well as the computational details involved. A library of MATLAB® code supplies ready-to-use implementations of the control and estimation algorithms developed in the book, allowing readers to tailor controllers for cases of their particular interest with little effort. These implementations can be used for many different applications, including pipe flows, traffic flow, electrical power lines, and more.
Adaptive Control of Linear Hyperbolic PDEs is of value to researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, engineering and physics; it contains a rich set of adaptive control designs, including mathematical proofs and simulation demonstrations. The book is also of interest to students looking to expand their knowledge of hyperbolic PDEs.
This book reviews the use of digital surveillance for detecting, investigating and interpreting fraud associated with critical cyberinfrastructures in Nigeria, as it is well known that the country's cyberspace and cyberinfrastructures are very porous, leaving too much room for cyber-attackers to freely operate. In 2017, there were 3,500 successful cyber-attacks on Nigerian cyberspace, which led to the country losing an estimated 450 million dollars.
These cybercrimes are hampering Nigeria's digital economy, and also help to explain why many Nigerians remain skeptical about Internet marketing and online transactions. If sensitive conversations using digital devices are not well monitored, Nigeria will be vulnerable to cyber-warfare, and its digital economy, military intelligence, and related sensitive industries will also suffer.
The Nigerian Army Cyber Warfare Command was established in 2018 in order to combat terrorism, banditry, and other attacks by criminal groups in Nigeria. However, there remains an urgent need to produce digital surveillance software to help law enforcement agencies in Nigeria to detect and prevent these digitally facilitated crimes. The monitoring of Nigeria's cyberspace and cyberinfrastructure has become imperative, given that the rate of criminal activities using technology has increased tremendously. In this regard, digital surveillance includes both passive forensic investigations (where an attack has already occurred) and active forensic investigations (real-time investigations that track attackers).
In addition to reviewing the latest mobile device forensics, this book covers natural laws (Benford's Law and Zipf's Law) for network traffic analysis, mobile forensic tools, and digital surveillance software (e.g., A-BOT). It offers valuable insights into how digital surveillance software can be used to detect and prevent digitally facilitated crimes in Nigeria, and highlights the benefits of adopting digital surveillance software in Nigeria and other countries facing the same issues.
Misfoldedaggregatedproteinoncewasconsideredasinterestingasyesterday'strash-a bothersome by-product of important and productive activities, to be disposed of and forgotten as quickly as possible. Yesterday's trash has become today's focus of cons- erable scienti?c interest for at least two reasons: (1) protein aggregates are at the core of a number of chronic degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, and (2) - gregation poses signi?cant obstacles to the manufacture of safe, ef?cacious, and stable protein products. As interest in protein misfolding, aggregation, and stability has soared beyond the core group of traditional protein-folding scientists, and as substantial scienti?c progress in understanding and controlling protein misfolding has been achieved, the need to summarize the state of the art became manifest. Although there are many excellent texts and edited collections on protein structure and folding, these volumes tend to relegate protein misfolding and aggregation to a minor role. Review articles and books focused on the biological role of protein aggregates in diseases have been published recently. Misbehaving Proteins: Protein (Mis)folding, Aggregation, and Stability differs from theseotherrecenteffortsinitsemphasisonfundamentalcomputationalandexperimental studies and in its linkage of disparate consequences of protein misfolding (e.g., from clinical manifestations to manufacturing headaches) to their common causes.
Beads made from Egyptian faience have been excavated from grave deposits (c. 4000-3100 BC), together with beads of glazed steatite (a soft rock) and of se- precious stones such as turquoise, carnelian, quartz, and lapis lazuli. Information on these and many more ancient beads used for ornaments and jewelry, ritual ceremonies, as art artifacts and gifts for amorous women throughout history, and descriptions of the raw materials (e. g. , glass, bone, precious and other stones) and manufacturing technologies used for their production can be located in many references. Many books are devoted to the description of beads that are not of water-soluble polymer origin, techniques for their production, their art, value, and distribution, re?ecting the wealth of information existing in this ?eld of science and art. On the other hand, there are no books fully devoted to the fascinating topic of hydrocolloid (polymeric) beads and their unique applications. A few books c- tain scattered chapters and details on such topics, while emphasizing the possibility of locating fragments of information elsewhere; however, again, there is no book that is solely devoted to hydrocolloid beads and their versatile applications. In the meantime, the use of water-soluble hydrocolloid beads is on the rise in many ?elds, making a book that covers both past and novel applications of such beads, as well as their properties and ways in which to manipulate them, crucial.
This book presents the concept of healthcare facilities management performance measurement (HCFMPM) using Ghana as a case study. It set forth in-depth theoretical and empirical underpinnings of performance measurement concepts for hospital facilities services, with the view to demonstrate critical performance dimensions to improve FM contributions and added value to healthcare delivery. The research approach adopted is mixed method encompassing qualitative interviews in case study setting and a questionnaire survey of sampled hospitals in Ghana. The book presents a number of useful tables, graphs as well as a pedagogic illustration of statistical analysis which are useful in understanding the concepts under reference. It develops a structural equation model for performance measurement of FM services. The book is of relevance to healthcare managers, facilities management practitioners and academics towards measuring and improving FM performance in hospitals. Although the data used in the analysis is based on the case study country Ghana, the result is by extension useful to several developing countries faced with the challenge to improve FM services delivery in public hospitals as well as other facilities management sectors.
This book highlights a major advance in low-energy scattering theory: the Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering (MCAS) theory, which represents an attempt to unify structure and reaction theory. It solves the Lippmann-Schwinger equations for low-energy nucleon-nucleus and alpha-nucleus scattering in momentum space, allowing both the bound and scattering states in the compound nucleus formed to be described. Results of various cases are presented and discussed.
This volume provides a broad perspective on the state of the art in the philosophy and conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics. Its essays take their starting point in the work and influence of Itamar Pitowsky, who has greatly influenced our understanding of what is characteristically non-classical about quantum probabilities and quantum logic, and this serves as a vantage point from which they reflect on key ongoing debates in the field. Readers will find a definitive and multi-faceted description of the major open questions in the foundations of quantum mechanics today, including: Is quantum mechanics a new theory of (contextual) probability? Should the quantum state be interpreted objectively or subjectively? How should probability be understood in the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics? What are the limits of the physical implementation of computation? The impact of this volume goes beyond the exposition of Pitowsky's influence: it provides a unique collection of essays by leading thinkers containing profound reflections on the field.
Chapter 1. Classical logic, classical probability, and quantum mechanics (Samson Abramsky)
Chapter 2. Why Scientific Realists Should Reject the Second Dogma of Quantum Mechanic (Valia Allori)
Chapter 3. Unscrambling Subjective and Epistemic Probabilities (Guido Bacciagaluppi)
Chapter 4. Wigner's Friend as a Rational Agent (Veronika Baumann, C?aslav Brukner)
Chapter 5. Pitowsky's Epistemic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the PBR Theorem (Yemima Ben-Menahem)
Chapter 6. On the Mathematical Constitution and Explanation of Physical Facts (Joseph Berkovitz)
Chapter 7. Everettian probabilities, the Deutsch-Wallace theorem and the Principal Principle (Harvey R. Brown, Gal Ben Porath)
Chapter 8. Two Dogmas' Redu (Jeffrey Bub)
Chapter 9. Physical Computability Theses (B. Jack Copeland, Oron Shagrir)
Chapter 10. Agents in Healey's Pragmatist Quantum Theory: A Comparison with Pitowsky's Approach to Quantum Mechanics (Mauro Dorato)
Chapter 11. Quantum Mechanics As a Theory of Observables and States and, Thereby, As a Theory of Probability (John Earman, Laura Ruetsche)
Chapter 12. The Measurement Problem and two Dogmas about Quantum Mechanic (Laura Felline)
Chapter 13. There Is More Than One Way to Skin a Cat: Quantum Information Principles In a Finite World(Amit Hagar)
Chapter 14. Is Quantum Mechanics a New Theory of Probability? (Richard Healey)
Chapter 15. Quantum Mechanics as a Theory of Probability (Meir Hemmo, Orly Shenker)
Chapter 16. On the Three Types of Bell's Inequalities (Ga´bor Hofer-Szabo´)
Chapter 17. On the Descriptive Power of Probability Logic (Ehud Hrushovski)
Chapter 18. The Argument against Quantum Computers (Gil Kalai)
Chapter 19. Why a Relativistic Quantum Mechanical World Must be Indeterministic (Avi Levy, Meir Hemmo) Chapter 20. Subjectivists about Quantum Probabilities Should be Realists about Quantum States (Wayne C. Myrvold)
Chapter 21. The Relativistic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument (Michael Redhead)
Chapter 22. What price statistical independence? How Einstein missed the photon.(Simon Saunders)
Chapter 23. How (Maximally) Contextual is Quantum Mechanics? (Andrew W. Simmons)
Chapter 24. Roots and (Re)Sources of Value (In)Definiteness Versus Contextuality (Karl Svozil)
Chapter 25: Schrdinger's Reaction to the EPR Paper (Jos Uffink)
Chapter 26. Derivations of the Born Rule (Lev Vaidman)
Chapter 27. Dynamical States and the Conventionality of (Non-) Classicality (Alexander Wilce).
Modern cryptosystems, used in numerous applications that require secrecy or privacy - electronic mail, financial transactions, medical-record keeping, government affairs, social media etc. - are based on sophisticated mathematics and algorithms that in implementation involve much computer arithmetic. And for speed it is necessary that the arithmetic be realized at the hardware (chip) level. This book is an introduction to the implementation of cryptosystems at that level.
The aforementioned arithmetic is mostly the arithmetic of finite fields, and the book is essentially one on the arithmetic of prime fields and binary fields in the context of cryptography. The book has three main parts. The first part is on generic algorithms and hardware architectures for the basic arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The second part is on the arithmetic of prime fields. And the third part is on the arithmetic of binary fields. The mathematical fundamentals necessary for the latter two parts are included, as are descriptions of various types of cryptosystems, to provide appropriate context.
This book is intended for advanced-level students in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Practitioners too will find it useful, as will those with a general interest in "hard" applications of mathematics.